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Menopause symptoms are well known, however, most women are unaware of a stage prior to menopause known as perimenopause. The condition and related symptoms are not common knowledge. Perimenopause – The term means “around menopause” when a woman’s body prepares for menopause. There is a depletion of estrogen or female hormone levels and women may not have monthly menstruation and thus cannot ovulate.
Dr. Kavya Krishnakumar, Consultant Obstetrics, and Gynaecology at Motherhood Hospital, Chennai says that perimenopausal symptoms typically appear in women in their mid-forties. It is also possible that a woman would skip this stage entirely and go straight to menopause.
It’s likely that your cycles are heavier because the lining of your uterus is thicker before being shed, says the expert. “A reduction in the hormone progesterone triggers this. It can also worsen other problems, such as fibroids (uterine wall growths). If estrogen production is abnormal, small quantities of the uterine lining or endometrium can be shed, resulting in irregular vaginal bleeding. The time between ovulatory events can grow longer. The endometrium begins to grow throughout this period and can become very dense.”
Changes in your cycle
The first symptoms of menopause are typically shifts in one’s period. Your time, for example, may begin to occur every six to eight weeks. You may have to wait a few months before it reappears. From time to time, you can experience a heavier or lighter flow. It’s important to note, however, that you can still become pregnant during perimenopause, the doctor points out.
“As a result, continue to use birth control as normal in the months leading up to menopause. Also, if you haven’t had your period in a while and aren’t sure if perimenopause has begun, a pregnancy test is a good place to start.”
You become flushed and begin to sweat for 5 to 10 minutes. Some women become slightly wet, while others become absolutely saturated in sweat. When you are awakened in the early hours of the morning, you can experience night sweats, she says.
Dr. Krishnakumar suggests: “Deep breathing exercises can be helpful. It’s also a good idea to stay away from things like hot weather, hot drinks, and spicy foods. As a natural source of estrogen, try black cohosh or add soy to your diet. For moderate-to-severe symptoms, consult your doctor about drugs.”
The vaginal canal is an estrogen-responsive organ. The vaginal lining is usually made up of cells that contain water, allowing it to expand properly. Therefore, it leads to the vaginal walls becoming flexible and expandable thus facilitating intercourse.
“However, with estrogen levels falling the condition is reversed where the tissues become thinner thus causing dryness. This can result in itchiness, soreness, and discomfort during sex, all of which can make you feel less ecstatic. Standard sex can help preserve the tone and health of the tissue. Other drug choices should be explored with your doctor.”
Sleep Problems and decreased fertility
Perimenopause is known to disrupt natural sleeping patterns; depriving women of the deep restorative sleep they require to face the day. It can make you feel exhausted and exacerbate the other perimenopause symptoms. Hormonal shifts and night sweats will wreak havoc on your sleep. Good habits like maintaining a daily schedule and having enough time to fall asleep will help. Consult your doctor about medical options if your symptoms are serious. Since ovulation is not regular conception can be nearly impossible.
Loss of bone density
Estrogen plays an important role in bone metabolism. Calcium in the bones is normally in a state of equilibrium, with calcium leaving the bone being replaced by calcium entering the bone at any given time. “This equilibrium is disrupted as estrogen production declines and becomes more erratic, resulting in a net calcium outflow from the bone. Osteoporosis, or reduced bone density, is a common disorder caused by a significant loss of bone calcium over time.” (IANS/JC)
(Perimenopausal, Perimenopause symptoms, Perimenopausal signs, Perimenopause meaning, what is menopause)
The Israeli Antiquities Authority said Tuesday that a diver swimming in the Mediterranean Sea has recovered a large sword that experts believe to be about 900 years old, dating back to the Crusades.
The antiquities authority's Director of Marine Archaeology, Kobi Sharvit, said the amateur diver was swimming about 150 meters offshore near the Israeli port of Haifa a few days ago when he spotted the sword lying on the ocean floor, four to five meters below the surface.
Sharvit said the diver recovered the sword and immediately took it to the antiquities authority. Sharvit said the sword -- encrusted with marine organisms when discovered –is the most complete and well preserved he has seen in 31 years. He described the sword as large, heavy and made of iron.
He added that the one-meter-long blade, hilt and handle were distinctive and highly noticeable after undercurrents apparently shifted sands that had concealed it.
Sharvit said because the sword was found in a cove, not far from the Crusader castle of Atlit on the northern coast of Israel, it is being assumed the sword belonged to a solder in the Crusades.
The Crusades were a series of medieval European Christian-led military expeditions to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries.
Sharvit said that from an historical perspective, the handle of the sword may be the most important part of the weapon as that is where decorations, and perhaps, even names or initials are often found that will help identify the sword.
He said once it cleaned, examined, and restored, the antiquities authority will put the sword on display. (VOA/RN)
Keywords: Crusader sword, Israel, Antiquity, Castle of Atlit
Facebook must pay a $4.75 million fine and up to $9.5 million in back pay to eligible victims who say the company discriminated against U.S. workers in favor of foreign ones, the Justice Department announced Tuesday.
The discrimination took place from at least January 1, 2018, until at least September 18, 2019.
The Justice Department said Facebook "routinely refused" to recruit or consider U.S. workers, including U.S. citizens and nationals, asylees, refugees and lawful permanent residents, in favor of temporary visa holders. Facebook also helped the visa holders get their green cards, which allowed them to work permanently
In a separate settlement, the company also agreed to train its employees in anti-discrimination rules and conduct wider searches to fill jobs.
The fines and back pay are the largest civil awards ever given by the DOJ's civil rights division in its 35-year history.
"Facebook is not above the law and must comply with our nation's civil rights laws," Assistant Attorney General Kristen Clarke told reporters in a telephone conference.
"While we strongly believe we met the federal government's standards in our permanent labor certification [PERM] practices, we've reached agreements to end the ongoing litigation and move forward with our PERM program, which is an important part of our overall immigration program," a Facebook spokesperson said in a statement. "These resolutions will enable us to continue our focus on hiring the best builders from both the U.S. and around the world and supporting our internal community of highly skilled visa holders who are seeking permanent residence." (VOA/RN)
Keywords: Facebook, Employment, Justice Dept., Recruitment
Tomatoes are a staple in the Indian diet, be it a vegetarian or a non-vegetarian dish. It has to be a part of each meal in some form. As puree, paste, flavour, or diced into the dal. This tangy, sweet, and juicy ingredient was not always Indian. In fact, it did not even grow in India until the British sanctioned it. It is a product of colonization and has come a long way to become part of our everyday meals.
Originally, the tomato was considered poison. Its actual native is debatable. Some say it is European while others argue that is came from indigenous parts of Spain and Portugal. Either way, it is a plant species that is associated with the legendary Nightshade. It looks very similar to this poisonous plant that tomatoes were not even harvested for a long time, for fear of picking Nightshade instead. It was believed that Nightshade caused the blood to turn to acid and that tomatoes had the same property. Later research proved that the plant itself may be poisonous but the fruit is not.
The fruit if the woody nightshade plant Image source: Wikimedia Commons
Tomato is considered a fruit instead of a vegetable because it is cooked. But this theory has an interesting tale behind it. in the United States, in 1887, a tax was levied on the transport of vegetables, but not on fruits. By then, tomatoes had become a huge part of the American diet and traders could not afford to pay the ten percent duty. So, they began to call the large loads they transported fruits, just to avoid the tax due. In time, this is how the tomato came to be regarded. Some scientists went even further and stated that it is a berry. Botanists claim that since it is a part that grows from the flower's ovary and contains seeds, it is a fruit and not a vegetable. But this is a debate that will never end.
Incorporating tomatoes into the Indian diet must have happened so long ago that people do not remember a time without tomatoes, considering how it is the fundamental ingredient of most cuisines. The tomato has a name in every language as well, so the trading between nations, the voyages that brought them to India, and the decoding of the fruit-vegetable must have taken place far earlier than our ancestors remember. Or, perhaps we liked it so much that we decided to use it everywhere and make it our own. Nonetheless, it has been a delightful addition.
Keywords: Tomato, Fruit, Vegetable, Nightshade, Voyage, Staple