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Less Brain Tissue not Behind Reading Disorder

The work also helps to determine the fine line between experience-induced changes in the brain and differences that are the cause of cognitive impairment

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Less Brain Tissue not Behind Reading Disorder
Less Brain Tissue not Behind Reading Disorder. Pixabay
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In people with dyslexia, less grey matter in the brain has been linked to reading disabilities, but new evidence suggests this is a consequence of poorer reading experiences and not the root cause of the disorder.

A study compared a group of dyslexic children with two different control groups – an age-matched group included in most previous studies, and a group of younger children who were matched at the same reading level as the children with dyslexia.

“This kind of approach allows us to control for both age as well as reading experience,” explained neuroscientist Guinevere Eden, professor of paediatrics at Georgetown University Medical Centre (GUMC).

Representational image.
Representational image. Pixabay

“If the differences in brain anatomy in dyslexia were seen in comparison with both control groups, it would have suggested that reduced grey matter reflects an underlying cause of the reading deficit. But that’s not what we observed,” Eden said.

The dyslexic groups showed less grey matter compared with a control group matched by age, consistent with previous findings, said the study published in the Journal of Neuroscience.

However, the result was not replicated when a control group matched by reading level was used as the comparison group with the dyslexics.

Also Read: Face Reading: The Art of Knowing More At First Glance

“This suggests that the anatomical differences reported in left hemisphere language processing regions appear to be a consequence of reading experience as opposed to a cause of dyslexia,” said Anthony Krafnick, lead author of the publication.

“These results have an impact on how we interpret the previous anatomical literature on dyslexia and it suggests the use of anatomical MRI would not be a suitable way to identify children with dyslexia,” Krafnick added.

The work also helps to determine the fine line between experience-induced changes in the brain and differences that are the cause of cognitive impairment.  (IANS)

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Novel Stroke Treatment Repairs Damaged Brain Tissue

The treatment called AB126 was developed using extracellular vesicles (EV) -- fluid-filled structures known as exosomes -- which are generated from human neural stem cells

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This research can help in understanding human cognitive processes. Pixabay

Researchers have developed a new stem-cell based treatment for stroke that reduces brain damage and accelerates the brain’s natural healing tendencies.

The treatment called AB126 was developed using extracellular vesicles (EV) — fluid-filled structures known as exosomes — which are generated from human neural stem cells.

“This is truly exciting evidence because exosomes provide a stealth-like characteristic, invisible even to the body’s own defenses. When packaged with therapeutics, these treatments can actually change cell progression and improve functional recovery,” said Steven Stice, a professor at the University of Georgia in the US who led the research team.

ALSO READ: Whole-brain radiation technique to treat brain cancer causes memory loss: Study

Fully able to cloak itself within the bloodstream, this type of regenerative EV therapy appears to be the most promising in overcoming the limitations of many cells therapies-with the ability for exosomes to carry and deliver multiple doses-as well as the ability to store and administer treatment, the researchers said.

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Human clinical trials for the treatment could begin as early as next year, the researchers added. Pixabay

Small in size, the tiny tubular shape of an exosome allows EV therapy to cross barriers that cells cannot, said the study published in the journal Translational Stroke Research.

ALSO READ: Stimulating Brain with Electricity may synchronize Brainwaves and help improve short-term working Memory: Study

Following the administration of AB126, the researchers used MRI scans to measure brain atrophy rates in preclinical, age-matched stroke models, which showed an approximately 35 percent decrease in the size of injury and 50 percent reduction in brain tissue loss.

“Until now, we had very little evidence specific to neural exosome treatment and the ability to improve motor function. Just days after stroke, we saw better mobility, improved balance, and measurable behavioral benefits in treated animal models,” Stice said.

Human clinical trials for the treatment could begin as early as next year, the researchers added. (IANS)