Sunday March 18, 2018

New Research reveals that Water shortage may have led to demise of Maya civilisation

Within a short period of time, Mayan civilisation in Central America went from flourishing to collapsing probably due to water shortage

1892 photograph of the Castillo at Chichen Itza, by Teoberto Maler. Image source: Wikimedia Commons

London, August 24, 2016: New Research has revealed that the irrigation technology that served the Mayans well during periods of drought may have actually made their society more vulnerable to major catastrophes.

Something really drastic must have happened to the ancient Maya at the end of the Classic Period in the ninth century.

Within a short period of time, this advanced civilisation in Central America went from flourishing to collapsing- the population dwindling rapidly and monumental stone structures were no longer being constructed.

The socio-hydrological model developed by the Gunter Bloschl-led team at Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien) tell us that droughts and water issues are one possible explanation for their demise and shows us just how vulnerable an engineered society can be.

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“It’s well-known that the Mayans built water reservoirs in preparation for dry spells,” said Linda Kuil, one of professor Gunter Bloschl’s PhD students of the Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems.

“With our model, we can now analyse the effects of the Mayans’ water engineering on their society. It is also possible to simulate scenarios with and without water reservoirs and compare the consequences of such decisions,” Kuil noted.

The water supply determines how much food is available and, in turn, affects the growth of the population.

As it turns out, water reservoirs can actually provide substantial relief during short periods of drought.

In the simulations without reservoirs, the Mayan population declines after a drought, whereas it continues to grow if reservoirs provide extra water.

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However, the reservoirs may also make the population more vulnerable during the prolonged dry spells.

Maya Civilisation. Image source: Wikimedia Commons
Maya Civilisation. Image source: Wikimedia Commons

The water management behaviour may remain the same, and the water demand per person does not decrease, but the population continues to grow.

“This may then prove fatal if another drought occurs resulting in a decline in population that is more dramatic than without reservoirs,” the authors noted.

“When it comes to scarce resources, the simplest solutions might turn out to be superficial and not always the best ones,” Kuil added.

The lessons learnt may also help us to draw important conclusions for our own future.

“We need to be careful with our natural resources. If technical measures simply deal with the shortage of resources on a superficial level and we do not adjust our own behaviour, society is left vulnerable,” the authors pointed out. (IANS)


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Stephen Hawking dies, world loses its brightest star

Hawking is survived by three children -- Robert, Lucy and Timothy -- from his first marriage to Jane Wilde, and three grandchildren

Scientist Stephen Hawking giving his views on the danger of Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Scientist Stephen Hawking giving his views on the danger of Artificial Intelligence (AI)
  • Stephen Hawking passed away on 14th March 2018
  • He was one of the greatest brains in the world
  • He shall always be remembered for his contributions and research

Renowned British physicist Professor Stephen Hawking, who shaped modern cosmology and inspired millions despite suffering from a life-threatening condition, died on Wednesday — leaving millions in mourning globally. He was 76. His family released a statement in the early hours of Wednesday confirming his death at his home in Cambridge.

The world mournes Stephen Hawking's death.
The world mournes Stephen Hawking’s death.

“We are deeply saddened that our beloved father passed away today. He was a great scientist and an extraordinary man whose work and legacy will live on for many years,” Hawking’s children said in a statement.

“His courage and persistence with his brilliance and humour inspired people across the world. He once said, It would not be much of a universe if it wasn’t home to the people you love.’ We will miss him for ever,” the statement added.

Hawking is survived by three children — Robert, Lucy and Timothy — from his first marriage to Jane Wilde, and three grandchildren. The physicist was born on January 8, 1942 in Oxford, England.

Known the world over for his acclaimed book “A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes”, Hawking was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) — a progressive neuro-degenerative disease — in 1963 at age 21, The Guardian newspaper said. Hawking’s doctors gave him nearly two years to live but he defied medical history and survived for decades.

Also Read: Hawking treated Artificial Intelligence as threat to humanity

For the rest of his life, the physicist used a wheelchair to move around and a speech synthesizer that allowed him to speak in a computerised voice with an American accent. For Hawking, the early diagnosis of his terminal disease ignited a fresh sense of purpose.

“Although there was a cloud hanging over my future, I found, to my surprise, that I was enjoying life in the present more than before. I began to make progress with my research,” he once said, the paper reported.

Prof. Stephen Hawking provided theories to  solve mysteries of the World. Wikimedia commons
Prof. Stephen Hawking provided theories to solve mysteries of the World. Wikimedia commons

“My goal is simple. It is a complete understanding of the universe, why it is as it is and why it exists at all,” Hawking added. With fellow physicist Roger Penrose, Hawking merged Einstein’s theory of relativity with quantum theory, suggesting that space and time began with the Big Bang and end in black holes. In 1974, Hawking proposed what is known as his most significant theory that black holes can emit sub-atomic particles.

Published for the first time in 1988, “A Brief History of Time” stayed on the Sunday Times bestsellers list for an unprecedented 237 weeks. It sold 10 million copies and was translated into 40 different languages. Hailed as one of the most brilliant theoretical physicists since Albert Einstein, Hawking never won a Nobel Prize.

In India, President Ram Nath Kovind, Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Science Minister Harsh Vardhan condoled the demise of Hawking.

“Sad to hear of the passing of scientist Stephen Hawking. His brilliant mind made our world and our universe a less mysterious place. And his courage and resilience will remain an inspiration for generations,” Kovind said in a tweet.

Modi also took to Twitter to pay tribute to Hawking and said: “Professor Stephen Hawking was an outstanding scientist and academic”. It was January 2001 when Hawking came to India for the first time, later describing the 16-day long tour as “magnificent”.

In the first leg of the tour in Mumbai, Hawking addressed an international physics seminar at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR). The physicist also celebrated his 59th birthday at the Oberoi Towers hotel where he stayed.

In New Delhi, Hawking met then President K.R. Narayanan at Rashtrapati Bhavan who later described the 45-minute meeting with the British physicist as “an unforgettable experience”.

The US space agency NASA tweeted: “Remembering Stephen Hawking, a renowned physicist and ambassador of science. His theories unlocked a universe of possibilities that we & the world are exploring. May you keep flying like superman in microgravity, as you said to astronauts on @Space_Station in 2014”.

“We lost a great one today. Stephen Hawking will be remembered for his incredible contributions to science — making complex theories and concepts more accessible to the masses,” tweeted Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella.

Also Read: Tech giants mourn Hawking’s death

Astrophysicist Dr Karan Jani, who works for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), wrote: “The courage for a career in astrophysics happened due to Brief History of Time – a used copy that I got from a street vendor in my small town of [India] 12 yrs ago.”

“A loss for all humanity. RIP Stephen Hawking,” tweeted American astronaut Scott Kelly. The physicist’s inspiring story gave birth to the 2014 movie “The Theory of Everything,” which was based on a memoir by Hawking’s first wife Wilde. Actor Eddie Redmayne’s portrayal of Hawking in the film won him an Oscar for Best Actor.

He was one of the greatest and most influential personalities in the world.
He was one of the greatest and most influential personalities in the world.

From Hollywood to Bollywood, condolences poured in for Hawking. While actor Eddie Redmayne remembered him as a “ladies man”, the official Twitter account of “The Big Bang Theory”, a TV series that witnessed appearances of the famed professor, also remembered him.

“RIP Stephen Hawking. A major loss to the scientific community and to the millions he inspired through his work and life. Condolences to the family,” tweeted actor-producer Farhan Akhtar. Oscar-winning sound designer Resul Pookutty said: “Remember to look up at the stars not down at your feet”! A sad day for all of us”. IANS