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April 4, 2017: The “obesity paradox” — seen in dozens of studies of weight — shows that being a little overweight is not necessarily a bad thing, and could prolong life in some ways, or at least not shorten it.
One study by researchers at the National Center for Health Statistics at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, reported in 2013 that being a little overweight was optimal for reducing one’s risk of dying. It analyzed data on 2.9 million people in 97 studies.
Researchers found that while moderate to severe obesity was associated with a significantly increased risk of death, mildly obese people had a 5 percent lower mortality risk than normal weight subjects. Slightly overweight people, the study found, had the greatest survival advantage — they had a 6 percent lower risk of death compared to people in a normal weight range.
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But a new study by Andrew Stokes and colleagues, published in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine, contradicts the paradox.
Stokes is a professor in the Department of Global Health at Boston University’s School of Public Health and Development, and senior author of the new study.
Critics like Stokes said prior studies concluding there is an obesity paradox are flawed because they don’t take into account a person’s weight history.
Stokes said most of the studies that have been done on weight and its relationship to mortality take a single weight measurement, or snapshot in time, while also recording measurements such as glucose and cholesterol levels, as well as blood pressure — which might be normal. Then, during a follow-up period, the mortality rates of heavier individuals are compared to the number of deaths among people within normal weight ranges.
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Stokes said those studies don’t take into account the fact that some of the leaner individuals, used for comparison purposes, were battling diseases that ultimately led to their deaths during follow-up.
A better approach, said Stokes, is what he and his colleagues did in their study. They followed the health of 225,000 participants over a 16-year period, in three prospective studies, and then examined deaths that occurred over the next dozen years.
Investigators found that people who were defined as obese or overweight according to a formula called the body mass index were at elevated risk for all causes of death, including cardiovascular disease, cancer and respiratory illness.
The highest risk of death, said Stokes, was seen among participants in the normal range who had significant drops in weight, reflecting unintentional weight loss due to illness.
“People on the pathway to dying often develop illnesses that make them lose weight. So, some people in the normal weight range are there not because they are in good health, but because they’ve developed a disease such as heart disease or cancer,” Stokes said.
The key to good health, according to the authors of the new study, is losing weight if one is carrying around extra kilos, then maintaining the lower weight over a long period of time.
Stokes said he’s worried that studies that show being overweight might be good for your health have a message that trickles down to the public at large.
Stokes noted that more than one-quarter of the world’s population is overweight, a problem that’s emerging in low- and middle-income countries due to the availability of sugary drinks and processed food.
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These foods can lead to chronic health problems, such as diabetes. So, said Stokes, people should not falsely believe that being overweight due to these indulgences is a prescription for good health in the long run.
“It’s a message that could potentially create apathy toward weight loss and maintaining a healthy weight,” Stokes said. “So, one implication of this study is that even a bit of excess weight can be harmful, and it’s really important to prevent weight gain and to maintain a stable healthy weight across the life course.”
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By- Joseph Collins
An energy meter, also known as a Watt-Hour Meter, is a device that monitors the level of electrical energy or gas consumed by users. Utilities are among the agencies that place these devices in various locations such as houses, businesses, organizations, and commercial properties to charge for the power consumed. You can always know how much is gas or electric cheaper by contacting a utility company.
Electronic Energy Meters
When compared to traditional mechanical meters, these types of measuring equipment are more accurate, have a faster processing time, and are more trustworthy. When attached to a source, it uses less power and begins measuring immediately.
Analog or digital meters are both possible. Analog meters transform energy to proportionate frequency or pulse rate, which is then combined by counters inside the device. A high-end processor directly calculates power in a digital electric meter.
Logic circuits combine the power to obtain the energy as well as for testing and certification purposes. The frequency or pulse rate is then calculated.
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Smart Energy Meters
It is a cutting-edge metering technique that entails installing intelligent meters that read, process, and relay information to clients. It monitors energy usage, changes the supply to consumers remotely, and digitally manages the maximum energy usage.
For greater performance, smart metering systems make use of modern metering infrastructure system technology. These meters limit the number of times you have to go to the place to get your monthly reading.
In these smart meters, modems are utilized to enable communication technologies like phone, wireless, fiber cable, and power line communications. Another benefit of smart metering is that it eliminates the possibility of tampering with energy meters, which could lead to unlawful power usage.
An energy meter, also known as a Watt-Hour Meter, is a device that monitors the level of electrical energy or gas consumed by users. | Wikimedia
Working of The Meter
The conventional electric meter looks like a clock and keeps track of how much electricity you consume. A series of microscopic gears inside the meter moves as your home takes electricity from the power wires. The numbers on your meter that you notice when you look at it indicate the number of revolutions.
The quantity of electricity utilized determines the speed at which the rotations occur. The velocity of moving gas in the pipeline is measured by a gas meter. As the gas flow rate increases, the dials speed up.
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How Often is Meter Read?
Unless the meter is a consumer-ready meter, the government will demand utility companies read user meters quarterly. If the consumer checks the meter, the utility is asked to read it at least once a year. Almost every month, many utilities try and read their customers' meters.
If the meter isn't read, the utility might issue an estimated charge based on the previous usage. Keep bushes and plants away from the meter and allow access to the meter reader if your meter is within your home. All utilities demand their meter readers to have an employment ID as a security measure.
Smart meters limit the number of times you have to go to the place to get your monthly reading. | Wikimedia
Responsibility of Meter
The utility provider is in charge of meter installation as well as the gas and electric lines that go up to the meter. The wires from the meter to the customer's premises are his responsibility.Please call your gas or electric utility if your meter is broken or displays evidence of tampering. Manipulation with a meter is prohibited and may result in service termination, legal punishment, or both.
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A hilarious rhyme that children often chant cheerily while jumping around, Jack and Jill is another example of the dark history covered up in light-hearted rhyme. Instead of England though, this is a rhyme that sheds light on the history of France.
Unlike other rhymes, the rhyme is part fiction and part history, since only the first two lines can be taken as an allusion to the past.
"Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of water,
Jack fell down and broke his crown,
And Jill came tumbling after."
King Louis XIV ruled over France in the late 18th century and was called out for treason. He had failed to uphold the economy of France. His spouse Marie Antoinette was an equally powerful influence in the monarchy but could not do anything when her husband was convicted.
King Louis XIV of France Image source: wikimedia commons
The French are famous for the guillotine, and Louis XIV was beheaded on this device. This act of executing a monarch is why the rhyme has the line "Jack fell down and broke his crown". The guillotine, at this point in history, was kept outside the city, and the journey to it was long and tedious. It was ideally located on a hill, so that the entire city of Paris could witness the execution of the accused.
Louise XIV is believed to have been dressed and taken on the long journey up to the guillotine, where his hair was cut off and he had to renounce his authority. He bid farewell to his friends and was followed up the hill by a crowd holding pikes and bayonets, to prevent his escape. He was then executed as the last monarch of France.
Death by guillotine was the most terrifying way to execute a criminal Image source: wikimedia commons
A few months later, when the hue and cry of Louis XIV's death has died down a little, but the political situation of France was no better, his wife, Marie Antoinette was also executed at the guillotine for her role in the fall of France. And this event alludes to the line, "Jill came tumbling after".
The rest of the rhyme is a fictional account of a moralistic idea for children, as a way to tell them to be careful of where they engage in play. Since a large part of the rhyme seems like a story of two children who have had an accident in play, that is how the rhyme has survived and the history behind it, has been forgotten.
Keywords: Marie Antoinette, Louise XIV, Guillotine, France, Nursery Rhymes, Monarchy