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Parkinson’s Disease may be linked to Changes in Gut Bacteria and it can even cause Deterioration of Motor Skills: Scientists

When the gut bacteria break down dietary fibre, they produce molecules called short-chain fatty acids or SCFAs

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Exercise is the new Prescription for Parkinsons Disease, VOA
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Los Angeles, December 3, 2016: For the first time, scientists have showed that Parkinson’s disease may be linked to changes in the gut bacteria and it can even cause the deterioration of motor skills that is the hallmark of the disorder.

Up to 10 million people worldwide is affected by Parkinson’s disease (PD), making it the second most common neurodegenerative disease.

According to PTI, Sarkis Mazmanian, California Institute of Technology in the US said, “The gut is a permanent home to a diverse community of beneficial and sometimes harmful bacteria, known as the microbiome, that is important for the development and function of the immune and nervous systems.”

“Because GI problems often precede the motor symptoms by many years, and because most PD cases are caused by environmental factors, we hypothesised that bacteria in the gut may contribute to PD,” he said.

Parkinson’s disease have symptoms like tremors, difficulty walking, aggregation of a protein called alpha-synuclein (aSyn) within cells in the gut and brain, and the presence of inflammatory molecules called cytokines within the brain. 75 per cent of people with PD have gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities, primarily constipation

Researchers utilised mice to display symptoms of Parkinson’s.

According to PTI, “One group of mice had a complex consortium of gut bacteria; the others, called germ-free mice, were bred in a completely sterile environment and thus lacked gut bacteria.”

The researchers used both the groups of mice perform several tasks in order to measure their motor skills, such as running on treadmills, descending from a pole and crossing a beam.

The germ-free mice performed significantly better than that of the mice with a complete microbiome.

“Once you remove the microbiome, the mice have normal motor skills even with the overproduction of aSyn,” Sampson said.

“All three of the hallmark traits of Parkinson’s were gone in the germ-free models,” Sampson said.

When the gut bacteria break down dietary fibre, they produce molecules called short-chain fatty acids or SCFAs, such as acetate and butyrate.

Earlier research has shown that these molecules can activate immune responses in the brain. Therefore, Mazmanian’s group hypothesised that an imbalance in the levels of SCFAs regulates the brain inflammation and other symptoms of PD.

So, when germ-free mice were fed SCFAs, cells called microglia – which are immune cells residing in the brain-became activated.

In fact, such inflammatory processes can cause neurons to malfunction or even die.

When the germ-free mice fed SCFAs they showed motor disabilities and aSyn aggregation in the regions of the brain linked to the PD.

– by NewsGram team with PTI inputs

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Aadhaar Helpline Mystery: French Security Expert Tweets of doing a Full Disclosure Tomorrow about Code of the Google SetUP Wizard App

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Google to charge $40 per device to Android makers. Wikimedia Commons

Google’s admission that it had in 2014 inadvertently coded the 112 distress number and the UIDAI helpline number into its setup wizard for Android devices triggered another controversy on Saturday as India’s telecom regulator had only recommended the use of 112 as an emergency number in April 2015.

After a large section of smartphone users in India saw a toll-free helpline number of UIDAI saved in their phone-books by default, Google issued a statement, saying its “internal review revealed that in 2014, the then UIDAI helpline number and the 112 distress helpline number were inadvertently coded into the SetUp wizard of the Android release given to OEMs for use in India and has remained there since”.

Aadhaar Helpline Number Mystery: French security expert tweets of doing a full disclosure tomorrow about Code of the Google SetUP Wizard App, Image: Wikimedia Commons.

However, the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) recommended only in April 2015 that the number 112 be adopted as the single emergency number for the country.

According to Google, “since the numbers get listed on a user’s contact list, these get  transferred accordingly to the contacts on any new device”.

Google was yet to comment on the new development.

Meanwhile, French security expert that goes by the name of Elliot Alderson and has been at the core of the entire Aadhaar controversy, tweeted on Saturday: “I just found something interesting. I will probably do full disclosure tomorrow”.

“I’m digging into the code of the @Google SetupWizard app and I found that”.

“As far as I can see this object is not used in the current code, so there is no implications. This is just a poor coding practice in term of security,” he further tweeted.

On Friday, both the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) as well as the telecom operators washed their hand of the issue.

While the telecom industry denied any role in the strange incident, the UIDAI said that he strange incident, the UIDAI said that some vested interests were trying to create “unwarranted confusion” in the public and clarified that it had not asked any manufacturer or telecom service provider to provide any such facility.

Twitter was abuzz with the new development after a huge uproar due to Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) Chairman R.S. Sharma’s open Aadhaar challenge to critics and hackers.

Ethical hackers exposed at least 14 personal details of the TRAI Chairman, including mobile numbers, home address, date of birth, PAN number and voter ID among others. (IANS)

Also Read: Why India Is Still Nowhere Near Securing Its Citizens’ Data?