Monday February 24, 2020
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PM Modi says India has difficult neighbourhood

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Kochi: Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Tuesday said India has a “difficult neighbourhood”, and that several countries have reached out to India to deal with the rising threat of terror and radicalization across regions “including the Islamic world”.

Addressing top commanders of the country’s three armed forces at the Combined Commanders’ Conference onboard INS Vikramaditya, the Prime Minister said India is seen as a “new bright spot” of the world economy, and also as “an anchor for regional and global peace, security and stability”.

Modi emphasised on India’s attempt to establish good relations with its neighbours, including Pakistan.

“And, as the world seeks to deal with the rising threat of terrorism and radicalism, countries across all regions, including in the Islamic world, have reached out to seek cooperation with India,” Modi said.

“Above all, it is our neighbourhood that is most critical for our future and for our place in the world. But ours is a difficult neighbourhood with the full spectrum of security challenges,” he said at the conference attended by the three service chiefs, the defence secretary and Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar.

Modi also expressed concern over the instability in West Asia.

“We see terrorism and ceasefire violations, reckless nuclear build-up and threats, border transgressions and, continuing military modernization and expansion.

“The shadow of West Asian instability is becoming longer,” he said.

The Prime Minister said, “our region” is marked by uncertain political transitions, weak institutions and internal conflicts and, “major powers” have increased their engagement in India’s land and maritime neighbourhood.

On Pakistan, Modi said India was trying to “turn the course of history” and “bring an end to terrorism”.

“We are engaging Pakistan to try and turn the course of history, bring an end to terrorism, build peaceful relations, advance cooperation and promote stability and prosperity in our region.

“There are many challenges and barriers on the path. But the effort is worth it because the peace dividends are huge and the future of our children is at stake,” the prime minister said.

“So, we will test their intentions to define the path ahead. For this, we have started a new NSA-level dialogue to bring security experts face to face with each other. But, we will never drop our guard on security and we will continue to judge progress on their commitments on terrorism,” he said.

Modi also mentioned China and said India was pursuing “closer relations” to harness the full potential of the economic partnership.

“We will aim to address outstanding issues, maintain stability on the border, and develop greater mutual understanding and trust in our overlapping neighbourhood.

“I believe that India and China can engage constructively across the complexity of their relationship as two self-assured and confident nations, aware of their interests and responsibilities,” he said.

“From Maldives and Sri Lanka in the seas to Nepal and Bhutan in the mountains, we are working to safeguard our interests and our relationships,” Modi said.

The land boundary agreement with Bangladesh has strengthened relations, and India was also committed to peace in Afghanistan, he added.

This was the first time the Combined Commanders Conference was held onboard an aircraft carrier.

Modi inspected a Tri-services Guard of Honour in the morning at INS Garuda in Kochi, before arriving onboard INS Vikramaditya, where he was received by the three service chiefs.(IANS)

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A Nuclear War Between India and Pakistan Can Pose a Threat To Ocean Life, Says Study

A lingering question is whether the survivors could still get food from the sea

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Ocean
For the study, published in Geophysical Research Letters journal, the researchers looked at how climate changes stemming from nuclear war would affect the ocean life. Pixabay

A nuclear war between India and Pakistan could worsen the impact of ocean acidification on corals, clams, oysters and other marine life with shells or skeletons, says a study.

“We found that the ocean’s chemistry would change, with global cooling dissolving atmospheric carbon into the upper ocean and exacerbating the primary threat of ocean acidification,” said the study’s co-author Alan Robock, Distinguished Professor at Rutgers University in the US.

For the study, published in Geophysical Research Letters journal, the researchers looked at how climate changes stemming from nuclear war would affect the oceans.

They used a global climate model in which the climate reacted to soot (black carbon) in smoke that would be injected into the upper atmosphere from fires ignited by nuclear weapons. They considered a range of hypothetical nuclear wars, including a relatively small one between India and Pakistan and a large one between the US and Russia.

Excess carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels enters the ocean and reacts with water to form carbonic acid, which decreases ocean pH (makes it more acidic) and lowers levels of carbonate ions. Corals, clams, oysters and other marine organisms use carbonate ions to create their shells and skeletons, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

A more acidic ocean makes it harder to form and maintain shells and skeletons. The massive amount of smoke from a nuclear conflict would block sunlight and cause global cooling, the study said.

The cooling would temporarily boost the pH in the surface ocean over five years and briefly lessen the decline in pH from ocean acidification. But the cooling would also lead to lower levels of carbonate ions for about 10 years, challenging shell maintenance in marine organisms, said researchers.

Nuclear, Atom, Bomb, Atomic, Science, War, Radioactive
A nuclear war between India and Pakistan could worsen the impact of ocean acidification on corals, clams, oysters and other marine life with shells or skeletons, says a study. Pixabay

“We have known for a while that agriculture on land would be severely affected by climate change from nuclear war,” Robock said. “A lingering question is whether the survivors could still get food from the sea. Our study is the first step in answering this question,” Robock added.

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The next step is to combine projected changes in ocean chemistry with projected changes in temperature and salinity and assess their impacts on shellfish and fish stocks throughout the oceans, he said. (IANS)