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Pre-menopausal women of South Asian origin more at risk of Osteoporosis: Study

Pre-menopausal women of South Asian origin might be more at risk of developing osteoporosis in later life; a recent study has shown

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Osteoporosis in women, Wikimedia
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London, March 23, 2017: Pre-menopausal women of South Asian origin might be more at risk of developing osteoporosis in later life, owing to higher levels of a by-product of bone resorption, a new study in the journal Bone reports.

Bone resorption is a natural process which enables the transfer of calcium from bone tissue into the bloodstream and is required to allow bone to adapt itself to challenges (e.g. change in a person’s activity levels) and repair damage.

However, if excessive and not balanced by equivalent bone formation, overtime this can be detrimental to bone health, the study said.

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The findings, reported in the journal Bone revealed that pre-menopausal South Asian women had higher levels of urinary N terminal telopeptide — a by-product of bone resorption found in urine — than their white counterparts, indicating elevated levels of bone resorption than would be expected for their age.

“The study showed that pre-menopausal South Asian women have the same level of bone resorption as a woman who has been through the menopause,” said lead author Andrea Darling from the University of Surrey in Britain.

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Typically high levels of this by-product are only found in post-menopausal women, which indicates that osteoclast cells in pre-menopausal South Asian women might be breaking down bones at a quicker rate than they are being reformed, making these women more susceptible to osteoporosis and fractures in later life.

In addition, fluctuations in levels of Vitamin D, — crucial for maintaining healthy bones — that is very high levels in summer but very low levels in winter, also led to higher levels of bone resorption.

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For the study, the team examined bone resportion in over 370 pre and post-menopausal South Asian and white women in the Britain. (IANS)

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USA: Everything you want to know about Security Clearance; Find out here!

A security clearance allows a person access to classified national security information or restricted areas.

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Former CIA Director John O. Brennan speaks at the Council on Foreign Relations in Washington, March 11, 2014. President Donald Trump revoked Brennan's security clearance Wednesday. VOA
Former CIA Director John O. Brennan speaks at the Council on Foreign Relations in Washington, March 11, 2014. President Donald Trump revoked Brennan's security clearance Wednesday. VOA

U.S. President Donald Trump on Wednesday revoked the security clearance of former CIA Director John Brennan. We take a look at what that means.

What is a security clearance?

A security clearance allows a person access to classified national security information or restricted areas after completion of a background check. The clearance by itself does not guarantee unlimited access. The agency seeking the clearance must determine what specific area of information the person needs to access.

What are the different levels of security clearance?

There are three levels: Confidential, secret and top secret. Security clearances don’t expire. But, top secret clearances are reinvestigated every five years, secret clearances every 10 years and confidential clearances every 15 years.

All federal agencies follow a list of 13 potential justifications for revoking or denying a clearance. VOA
All federal agencies follow a list of 13 potential justifications for revoking or denying a clearance. VOA

Who has security clearances?

According to a Government Accountability Office report released last year, about 4.2 million people had a security clearance as of 2015, they included military personnel, civil servants, and government contractors.

Why does one need a security clearance in retirement?

Retired senior intelligence officials and military officers need their security clearances in case they are called to consult on sensitive issues.

Also Read: Governments Across The World Request Apple for 30,000 Device Information

Can the president revoke a security clearance?

Apparently. But there is no precedent for a president revoking someone’s security clearance. A security clearance is usually revoked by the agency that sought it for an employee or contractor. All federal agencies follow a list of 13 potential justifications for revoking or denying a clearance, which can include criminal acts, lack of allegiance to the United States, behavior or situation that could compromise an individual and security violations. (VOA)