Monday December 16, 2019

Pre-school Math Skills in Children support First-grade Math Skills, which in turn support Fifth-Grade Math Knowledge: Study

Patterning knowledge may merit more attention in both pre-school and the early elementary grades

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Two children. Pixabay

New York, December 6, 2016: Pre-school children’s skills in patterning, comparing quantities and counting objects were stronger predictors of their math achievement in fifth grade than other skills, researchers said.

The study showed that pre-school math skills supported first-grade math skills, which in turn supported fifth-grade math knowledge.

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By first grade, patterning remained important and understanding written numbers and calculating emerged as important predictors of later achievement.

But, because not all types of math knowledge were equally important, certain early math topics should get more attention than they currently do, the researchers said.

“Counting, calculating, and understanding written numbers already get a lot of attention from teachers and parents, for good reasons,” said lead author Bethany Rittle-Johnson, Professor at Vanderbilt University in Tennessee, US.

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“However, comparing quantities may merit more attention in pre-school and patterning knowledge may merit more attention in both pre-school and the early elementary grades,” Rittle-Johnson added.

The findings suggest that educators and school administrators may want to consider carefully which areas of math study should they shift attention to as they develop curricula for the early years.

For the study, the team followed 517 low-income children aged between 4-11.

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Determining how to help children achieve in math is important, particularly for children from low-income families who often enter school with weaker math knowledge than their peers, the researchers suggested.

The study appeared in the journal Child Development. (IANS)

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Here’s how Smaller Class Sizes Affects Students’ Performance

Smaller class sizes not always better for students

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Smaller class
Smaller Class sizes can have a negative impact on students' achievement and performance. Pixabay

Researchers have found that smaller class sizes are not always associated with better pupil performance and achievement.

“This finding is perhaps due to the fact that class size effects are more likely to be detected in countries with limited school resources where teacher quality is lower on average,” said study researcher Spyros Konstantopoulos from Michigan State University in the US.

The precise effect of smaller class sizes can vary between countries, academic subjects, years, and different cognitive and non-cognitive skills, with many other factors likely playing a role, according to the study published in the journal Research Papers in Education.

Smaller class sizes in schools are generally seen as highly desirable, especially by parents. With smaller class sizes, teachers can more easily maintain control and give more attention to each pupil.

Smaller class room size
The precise effect of smaller class sizes can vary between countries, academic subjects, years, and different cognitive and non-cognitive skills. Pixabay

As such, many countries limit the maximum size of a class, often at around 30 pupils.

for the findings, the researchers decided to analyse data produced by the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS).

Every four years since 1995, TIMSS has monitored the performance and achievement of fourth grade (age 9-10) and eighth grade (age 13-14) pupils from around 50 countries in mathematics and science.

It records pupils’ academic ability in these subjects and their self-reported attitude and interest in them, and also contains information on class sizes.

To make the analysis more manageable, the researchers limited it to data from eighth grade pupils in four European countries – Hungary, Lithuania, Romania and Slovenia – collected in 2003, 2007 and 2011.

They chose these four countries because they all mandate maximum class sizes, which would help to make the statistical analysis more reliable.

Despite these limitations, the data still encompassed 4,277 pupils from 231 classes in 151 schools, making it much larger than most previous studies on class size.

The analysis revealed that smaller class sizes were associated with benefits in Romania and Lithuania, but not in Hungary and Slovenia.

Smaller class sizes
Smaller class sizes in schools are generally seen as highly desirable, especially by parents. Pixabay

The beneficial effects were most marked in Romania, where smaller classes were associated with greater academic achievement in mathematics, physics, chemistry and earth science, as well as greater enjoyment of learning mathematics.

In Lithuania, however, smaller class sizes were mainly associated with improvements in non-cognitive skills such as greater enjoyment in learning biology and chemistry, rather than higher academic achievement in these subjects.

The beneficial effects were also only seen in certain years.

“Most class size effects were not different than zero, which suggests that reducing class size does not automatically guarantee improvements in student performance,” said Konstantopoulos.

“Many other classroom processes and dynamics factor in and have to work well together to achieve successful outcomes in student learning,” Konstantopoulos said.

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The researchers think smaller class sizes may have had greater beneficial effects on pupils in Romania and Lithuania than in Hungary and Slovenia because schools in Romania and Lithuania have fewer resources. (IANS)