Monday January 20, 2020

Researchers: Dementia risk in US lowest among Asian Americans

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New York: Researchers said the chance of the brain disorder is lowest among Asian Americans while examining dementia risk in the US.

The study compared six ethnic and racial groups within the same geographic population and found significant variation in dementia incidence among them.

“This is the only research that directly compares dementia for these six racial and ethnic groups, representing the true ageing demographic of the United States in a single study population,” said study lead author Elizabeth Rose Mayeda, a postdoctoral fellow at University of California, San Francisco.

The researchers found dementia incidence to be highest in Blacks and American Indian/Alaska Natives, lowest among Asian Americans, and intermediate among Latinos, Pacific Islanders and Whites.

The study population included more than 274,000 Northern California members of Kaiser Permanente, the nation’s largest private integrated health care system with more than 10 million members.

The researchers used electronic health records covering patient visits over 14 years from January 2000 through December 2013 to identify participants diagnosed with dementia, as well as their race and ethnicity.

The researchers found that dementia incidence over the study period ranged from an average annual rate of 26.6 cases per 1,000 for Blacks, and 22.2 cases per 1,000 for American Indians/Alaskan Natives, to 15.2 cases per 1,000 for Asian Americans.

In between were Latinos and Pacific Islanders with an average annual rate of 19.6 cases per 1,000 and Whites with 19.3 per 1,000.

The results were published online in Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association.(IANS)

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Researchers Develop Machine Keeping Human Livers Alive For a Week Outside Body

The next step will be to use these organs for transplantation. The proposed technology opens a large avenue for many applications offering a new life for many patients with end stage liver disease or cancer

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The study shows that six of ten perfused poor-quality human livers, declined for transplantation by all centres in Europe, recovered to full function within one week of perfusion on the machine. Pixabay

Researchers have developed a machine that repairs injured human livers and keeps them alive outside the body for one week.

According to the study, published in the journal Nature Biotechnology, this breakthrough may increase the number of available organs for transplantation saving many lives of patients with severe liver diseases or cancer.

“The success of this unique perfusion system — developed over a four-year period by a group of surgeons, biologists and engineers — paves the way for many new applications in transplantation and cancer medicine helping patients with no liver grafts available,” said study researcher Pierre-Alain Clavi from the University Hospital Zurich in Switzerland.

Until now, livers could be stored safely outside the body for only a few hours. With the novel perfusion technology, livers — and even injured livers — can now be kept alive outside of the body for an entire week.

This is a major breakthrough in the transplantation medicine, which may increase the number of available organs for transplantation and save many lives of patients suffering from severe liver diseases or a variety of cancers.

Injured cadaveric livers, initially not suitable for use in transplantation, may regain full function while perfused in the new machine for several days.

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According to the study, published in the journal Nature Biotechnology, this breakthrough may increase the number of available organs for transplantation saving many lives of patients with severe liver diseases or cancer. Pixabay

According to the researchers, the basis for this technology is a complex perfusion system, mimicking most core body functions close to physiology.

The Liver4Life project was developed under the umbrella of Wyss Zurich institute, which brought together the highly specialised technical and biomedical knowledge of experts from the University Hospital Zurich.

“The biggest challenge in the initial phase of our project was to find a common language that would allow communication between the clinicians and engineers,” said researcher Philipp Rudolf von Rohr.

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The study shows that six of ten perfused poor-quality human livers, declined for transplantation by all centres in Europe, recovered to full function within one week of perfusion on the machine.

The next step will be to use these organs for transplantation. The proposed technology opens a large avenue for many applications offering a new life for many patients with end stage liver disease or cancer. (IANS)