Get subscribed to our newsletter
Get interesting updates to your email inbox.
The Age of Information that set in with the success of IT revolution some three decades ago pushed the world economy and cross-border human interactions up in a transformational manner and established globalisation as a new reality.
It has facilitated a phenomenal rise of businesses in terms of both products and services and created many positive socio-political trends. There is a new level of global competitiveness in business that is good for customers and a new kind of power of communication in the hands of citizens that forced transparency of governance, making it difficult for dictators to politically survive for long.
It is the destructive side of the use of cyber space, however, that is beginning to show up more and more — at the level of individuals, organisations and nations — and clearly converting even the social media into a weapon of perception management, political combat and proxy wars.
In India, the Twitter campaign that was designed to show that the Modi regime had created an atmosphere of intolerance towards the minorities, the orchestrated criticism of the government for creating a ‘surveillance state’ following an order of the MHA authorising the Intelligence agencies to scan any computer resource for reasons connected to national security and the escalation of the Pakistani ISI’s proxy war against India through the clandestine use of social media for radicalising Muslim youth in Kashmir and elsewhere, illustrate this point.
It is a welcome feature of the new age we live in that leaders of the government and those in the opposition take to social media for reaching out to the people to explain their stand on issues of the day.
US President Donald Trump uses Twitter to an amazing degree for announcing his foreign and domestic policies and issuing rejoinders to his critics. This is also now a part of electoral politics that depends heavily on perception management.
In India, political propaganda is being made on social media even in disregard of the prohibitory provisions of the IT Act — now under adjudication — that punished calls for violence, inflammatory pronouncements having the potential of creating communal disharmony and statements insulting the national flag. Though the dividing line between what is gross and abusive on the one hand and suave and convincing on the other, has thinned out as far as the political discourse is concerned, use of the power of social media has now become a significant factor in India’s electoral battles — resort to ‘fake news’ notwithstanding.
The concept of influencing the will or behaviour of adversaries is not new and is now being practised with full vigour across the world because it is a low-cost option also for targeting masses or voters in an election. Citizens are now increasingly impacted to shape the outcome of elections and to pressure their governments to change policies.
Social media is a means of raising the people’s voice, which is fine, but more often than not, it is now used as a tool for motivated campaigns of vested interests within or outside of the country. The Indian government has been compelled, in recent times, to have close scrutiny of the NGOs suspected of precisely doing this and examine their funding and links to safeguard national security and integrity.
In technical terms, the aggregated data, when processed through advanced algorithms can reveal significant material for perception management. ‘Influence operations’ exploit emotional vulnerabilities. Political parties, and even external forces, use social media platforms for circulation of misinformation and even fake videos to create apprehensions, manipulate perceptions and mould public opinion.
Parties are now going beyond the old practice of ‘bribing’ voters to use technology of data firms and services on hire for targeting communities on social media so as to tilt voting behaviour in their favour. They use analysis to decide what the focal points of their campaign should be.
Cyber-enabled operations are now an integral part of Information Warfare. A planned effort to use technologies and devices is made not only to steal the target’s data for monetisation, which is a part of competitive business today, but also for pursuing hostile missions such as degrading the target’s systems to deny the advantage of information to the latter and planting manipulated information to elicit a particular response on selected issues.
There are increasing incidents of data breaches in India. Some three million records were stolen, lost or exposed in the country in 2017 — a whopping increase over what happened in 2016 while in 2018 millions of records were believed to have been compromised in the Aadhaar breach alone.
There are large leakages of data from MNCs. Cambridge Analytica was suspected of having harnessed data of millions of Facebook users, of which Indians were a significant segment. The firm reportedly leveraged them for political campaigns. Its parent company reportedly had links with British Intelligence agencies. Similarly, Microsoft is said to have routinely shared the financial details of Indian bank customers with Intelligence agencies in the US – the Reserve Bank of India had reportedly flagged this breach.
Information Warfare has moved towards its combat version — cyber warfare — which, in turn, is fast getting integrated with general warfare. Cyber operations are now set to play a decisive role in a military combat. The US has elevated its Cyber Command to the status of what is called the Unified Combatant Command. China has created a Strategic Support Force to provide necessary support to the Chinese Armed Forces during war and protecting Chinese interests in cyber space during non-war periods. Russia has special forces for information warfare. Artificial Intelligence-based cyber weapons are being developed by major powers with the result that Information Warfare is becoming Intelligence Warfare, adding to its surprise element.
In India, strong laws protect the Right to Privacy in the use of social media. The public does not realise, however, that entering cyber space is like being on a public thoroughfare or in a public park where you are completely visible and have no right to demand that people did not see what you were indulging in.
On social media, you should not do what you are not supposed to do — there would be a legal deterrent in place. The government is also tightening the law for service providers to deter them from passing on personal data for commercialisation. In the Indian context CERT-IN has reported a very large increase in cyber attacks in recent months – more than half of which originated from China and Pakistan.
India’s security set-up is seized of the threat posed to our national security by Islamic radicals who are being indoctrinated on social media and the sleeper cells of terrorists who are being funded and logistically supported by their master minds from across our borders through layered communications on line.
In short, social media is as much a tool of progress for the law abiding as it is a weapon of proxy war for our adversaries. Preparing for warfare outside of the battlefield is the new challenge for the nation. (IANS)
The city of Delhi has seen it all; from sultanate rule, to dynasties, and to colonial rule. From monarchy to democracy, Delhi has gone through its phases. But, in order to know and explore the nuances of Delhi, you must read these beautiful books.
1. City of Djinns: A Year in Delhi by William Dalrymple
This book was written while Dalrymple was still flirting with his love for the Medieval India. The author writes, "Moreover the city- so I soon discovered- possessed a bottomless seam of stories: tales receding far beyond history, deep into the cavernous chambers of myth and legend," and just like this, Dalrymple takes you in a tour to discover Discover Delhi.
2. Delhi by Heart: Impressions of a Pakistani Traveller by Raza Rumi
This book explores how the author explores his identity as a South Asian Muslim and how his city of Lahore is a mirror image of Delhi. Rumi, in this book, tries to co-relate the past with the present by comparing its festivals, streets, and markets.
3. Delirious Delhi: Inside India's Incredible Capital by DavePrager
This book is quite interesting. The story of this book revolves around the lives of Dave and Jenny who have recently moved to Delhi when their firm began to go down. The city of Delhi in this book is shown through their eyes as they try to make their way in the city that holds together a very large population.
4. The Heart has its Reasons by Krishna Sobti, Translated by Reema Anand, Meenakshi Swami
The original title of this book is "Dil - o - Danish". This book tells the reader about the streets of Old Delhi and almost transport the reader back in the past. This book is basically set in the 1920's, and tells the tale of a man's extramarital affair, his children out of wedlock, black magic, and Chandni Chowk's rich culture of sweets and the perils of being a widow. Interestingly, many have compared the author of this book to Jane Austen.
5. Delhi: A Novel by Khushwant Singh
Who would talk about Delhi and not remember Khushwant Singh? This amazing book is just like a narrative of the author's fulfilled love affair with the city and with a eunuch. The narrator in this book is an aging man who is trying to discover the city. This book is truly a masterpiece, where it takes the readers on the history of Delhi glimpsing at what makes the city what it is– simply beautiful.
There are some of the Indian cities which are older than time. Therefore, we must know which cities are they, and what has been their history!
1. Varanasi (1200 BC–)
Varanasi is one of the oldest cities of India, and has been a center of religious and cultural activity since the Bronze Age. In fact, this city might have been in existence from a very long time, since it finds mention in the Rig Veda. It is believed that the city of Varanasi was thriving for more than 1600 years before the fall of the Roman Empire in Europe. This city is one of the holiest places for Hindus and Jains, and even Lord Buddha gave his very first sermon here in 528 BC. In Hinduism, it is believed that dying in Varanasi brings salvation, which is the reason why the city is always brimming with pilgrims.
2. Ujjain (700/600 BC–)
Ujjain was once considered as one of the most prominent cities in the Middle India. In fact, the name of this city is repeatedly mentioned in the literature of that period, i.e. in the works of stalwarts like Kālidāsa. This city has seen the rise and fall of numerous empires, from the Mauryas to the Avantis, Nandas, and even the Guptas. This city, just like Varanasi, is also considered as one of the holiest cities in India, and hosts one of the officially recognized Kumbh melas, the Ujjain Simhastha Kumbh, in which people across the world take place.
3. Madurai (500 BC–)
Madurai been a major center of culture and trade for more than 2500 years. In fact, the name of this city has been mentioned in the writings of the great traveler, Megasthenes, and has been ruled by several empires from the Pandyas and the Cholas to the Karnata, and finally the British. Interestingly, ‘'Koodal,' was one of its ancient name which means 'a congregation of learned men'. There is no doubt that Madurai was an epicenter of scholars and religious teachers in the southern part of India.
4. Thanjavur (300 BC–)
Thanjavur was formerly known as Tanjore. This city is pretty famous for its Tanjore style of painting, which is a traditional style that is characterised by the use of gold foil, religious imagery, and simple compositions. This city is best known for being the home of the Great Living Chola Temples, which is now a UNESCO World Heritage site. Till date, people across the world visit this place in order to experience its rich history and heritage.
By- Digital Hub
I prefer synthetic wigs as it isn't something that I would wear all the time - just when I look different. Additionally, their ease of use is an essential factor for me. However, suppose you're looking to wear a wig for a fashionable accessory or as a way for you to show your personality. In that case, I'd recommend buying multiple synthetic wigs of various styles and colors instead of only the one human hair wig at the same amount. However, be cautious - only purchase top-quality synthetic braids that are more expensive as you might be disappointed by the new style you've chosen.
Synthetic Vs Human Hair Wigs
A decent human hair wig will cost more than one made of synthetic. This is due to the supply of hair. While synthetic fibers are produced as needed, but long hair of women of good quality is in scarce supply. Human hair of the highest quality comes that comes from Eastern Europe, which is very low. The highest synthetic wigs are afro short wigs If you are looking for a human hair wig, the cost is more expensive and usually exceeds five hundred dollars, contingent upon the size. But you can find both kinds of wigs at a discount price from online stores that specialize in discount hair wigs. Cheap wigs aren't at any time inferior in quality; they're just not the latest models. If price is a concern, you should always purchase a high-quality synthetic wig instead of a low-quality human hair wig.
Require a Wig
If you're not sure of which wig you should pick, However, our suggestion is to choose the highest-quality human hair wig, especially if you plan to make it your style of the moment and wear it all day. Human hair wigs are the best choice for those who require a wig due to loss of hair. However, go for an artificial wig if you want to enjoy the way you look and change your appearance now and then.
Also read: Gemstones: Fashion Statements
In today's society, the wearing of a hair wig has become more common. A hair wig is an easy method to alter your appearance at any time you wish quickly. Women are more drawn to these wigs since they can change their hairstyle with ease. Wigs are usually worn by those who have shed their hair or those who wish to alter their hairstyle to be fashionable.
Human hair wigs on display at a store Image source: Photo by Markus Spiske on Unsplash
There is a variety of hair accessories in the market. They range from inexpensive to costly depending on their materials, style, and quality. If you're in search of a wig, then be sure to keep several factors in mind. First, the wig should be able to fit comfortably on your hair without making you appear odd. Additionally, the color of hair that is a part of the wig must match your physical appearance. Below are various hair accessories utilized by the majority of people.
If you are purchasing a human hair wig, make sure you know the origin of the hair. If you're looking to invest a few hundreds of dollars on a wig, it's recommended to purchase one of European hair. However, if the wig's label reads "human hair wig" without stating the origin for the hair, it's most likely made of Asian hair.
Also read: Latest Monsoon Fashion Trends
Human hair wigs have many advantages:
Human hair wigs last longer than synthetic ones
Human hair is soft and natural to the touch.
Human hair wigs can be dyed and styled as your hair
Human hair wigs "breathes" and your scalp won't sweat more than it does under one
Human hair wigs need to be styled at least once per wash
Human hair wigs are costly
While you can find numerous styles of synthetic wigs, but there aren't all fibers produced in the same way; for example, wigs that are costume-related for Halloween are typically made of lower quality fibers, which are expensive and appear to be the hair wig. For Halloween parties, this is okay, but for everyday use, you'll need a wig that looks like it's been growing around your head. On the other hand, contemporary synthetic materials utilized in top-quality designer wigs look highly practical for those who want to look realistic.
Disclaimer: (This article is sponsored and include some commercial links)