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Humpty Dumpty as depicted in Alice in Wonderland

Humpty Dumpty is illustrated as the naughty, smiling egg, sitting on the edge of a stone wall, threatening to fall off. Often the illustrations extend to the next page, where the egg is cracked and broken, its inner contents spilling out while a couple of chess pawns stand around watching.

The nursery rhyme about Humpty Dumpty appears prominently in Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland, as a poem that depicts the silliness of nonsense poetry. But perhaps there is more to the rhyme than just this.

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The deft use of language, striking imagery, and strong characters are a hallmark of Goswami's writing.

The late Jnanpith award-winning author Indira Goswami was a great literary writer of her generation and a feminist icon. Most of her major works have been translated from Assamese into English; however, some of her works are yet to be discovered by a larger audience. "Five Novellas About Women" (Niyogi Books) represents a cross-section of her writing, with a special focus on the courage of women under trying circumstances.
Sensitively translated, with detailed notes on the translation, these stories bring to light the human condition that Goswami portrayed in her writing. The lives of the rural poor, the situation of widows, the plight of the urban underclass, and various social constraints under which people are forced to live are depicted in these impactful narratives.

courage of women under trying circumstances. Indira Goswami wrote about people rarely represented in Indian writing women, the marginalized, the powerless, the unfortunate. | Photo by Miguel Bruna on Unsplash

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Numerous Indian texts were translated to English and were widely read all over the world

The most significant feature of Indian literature is its diversity which is due to the presence of the country's variety of languages and sub-cultures. And one of the greatest genres of Indian literature is its poetry which can be traced back to the sixth century B.C. From Vedic Sanskrit poems to Urdu poetry that flourished under the Mughal Empire. Since the early 19th century when the Britishers colonized the country, numerous Indian texts were translated to English and were widely read all over the world. . India has historically been the land of notable poets whose exemplary work is world-renowned. Be it romance, sadness, happiness, and all-out other emotions are beautifully described in the pure form of Indian poetry.


Kalidasa is one of the greatest Sanskrit poets of India from the 5th century. He is regarded as one of the greatest poets of all time and he has had a major impact on not only Indian poetry but on world literature. Although most details of his life are subject to speculation. His two epic works of poetry, Kumārasambhava ("Birth of the War God") and Raghuvaṃśa ("Dynasty of Raghu" ) are among the most revered in Indian literature to this day. His plays and poems are primarily based on the Vedas, Puranas, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. The drama "Shakuntala" written by Kalidasa was the first Indian drama ever it was later translated into English by Sir William Jones.

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Croplands in Sangam Literature (Marutham)

An integral part of Sangam Literature, Agam and Puram poetry constitute the primary cultural lens into the erstwhile Tamil kingdom. These poems are a central part of the Tolkapiyam, which is the most important text of the time, written by Thiruvalluvar.

Agam poems deal with love. They are an insight into the many different kinds of love that bordered on caste, kingdom, and religious differences. Some of the lost manuscripts which were stored in Oxford, UK, were translated by A.K. Ramanujan and rendered in the modernist style. What was originally a poem of 13-30 lines, was condensed to around 4-5 lines. These poems, however, keep the crux intact, and through them, cultural practices like illicit affairs, flora, fauna, and appearances of the people according to region are illustrated in detail.

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