Saturday December 15, 2018

Ugandan Engineers Invent Better Way to Diagnose Pneumonia, the leading Killers of Young Children in Africa

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Makerere University Telecom graduates Brian Turyabagye (left) and Besufekad Shifferaw (Right) show off the smart jacket that will be used in the diagnosis of pneumonia in children, Kampala, Uganda, April 5, 2017. (H. Althumani/VOA)
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ree university engineering graduates in Uganda are taking on one of the leading killers of young children in Africa – pneumonia. They say the prototype of their invention, a “smart jacket” they have named Mama’s Hope, can diagnose the illness faster and more accurately than the current medical protocol.

Four-month-old Nakato Christine writhes on a hospital bed, breathing fast. On the other end of the bed is her twin sister, in the same condition.

Nakato coughs as Senior Nurse Kyebatala Loy adjusts the nasal gastric tube.

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“They have been put on oxygen because they have difficulty in breathing and the feeding is also difficult because of their fast breathing,” Kyebatala said.

Since January, 352 babies have been admitted with pneumonia to pediatric ward 16 at Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala.

Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death for children under five years of age in Africa and south Asia, according to the World Health Organization. In 2015, pneumonia killed nearly a million children worldwide.

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A key problem is the challenge involved in diagnosing the disease. The sooner the sick children start receiving antibiotics, the better their chance of survival. But health workers armed with stethoscopes and thermometers can miss the infection in its early stage. Dr. Flavia Mpanga of the U.N. Children’s Fund in Kampala says other methods, like the respiratory timer, can lead to misdiagnosis.

“If you see the respiratory timer, it’s got a ticking mechanism that confuses the community health workers. When they are taking the breathe rates, they confuse the ticking sound of the respiratory timer with the breathe rates and every child is almost diagnosed with pneumonia,” said Dr. Mpanga.

She says over-diagnosis means some children are taking antibiotics they don’t need, which is also a public health problem.

A trio of recent university engineering graduates in Uganda think they have an answer. They have been working with the Mulago School of Public Health to test a prototype of their invention, the smart jacket, called Mama’s Hope.

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Two of the inventors, 26-year-old Beseufekad Shifferaw and 25-year-old Brian Turyabagye, gave VOA a demonstration.

“Ahh so…[zipper sound]… the jacket…is placed on the child…first, this goes around the child and then the falcon fastening is placed, and then the flaps are placed…[fade out]”

“This jacket will simply measure the vital signs of pneumonia. That is the breathing rate, the state of the lungs and the temperature,” said Turyabagye. “Now those signs are transmitted to our unit here, through which a health worker can read off the readings, which include cough, chest pains, nausea or difficulty in breathing. With those additional signs and symptoms, they are coupled with the result that has been measured by the jacket and it gives a more accurate diagnosis result.”

For now, it is just a prototype. But the inventors say their tests have shown that the smart jacket can diagnose pneumonia three times faster than traditional exams.

UNICEF has put the team in touch with its office in Copenhagen in charge of innovations to help them advance in the pre-trial stage. Dr. Mpanga sees potential.

“My only hope is that this jacket can reach a commercial value and be regulatory-body approved so that it can help the whole world,” said Dr. Mpanga.

Dr. Mpanga says taking the guess work out of pneumonia diagnosis could save countless lives in the developing world. (VOA)

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Russian Chemists Develop Unique Nano-grenades To Fight Diseases

To create the nanoparticles, the team experimented with photosensitive nanomaterial technology and a chemical 'switch' method to create the nanoparticles

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Chemists develop unique disease-fighting 'nano-grenades'. VOA

Russian chemists have developed a unique “transforming nanoparticle” that can help fight cancer and other diseases.

Professor Ekaterina Skorb and her team from ITMO University in St. Petersburg created hollow nanoparticles with a covering of polymer filaments and granules of titanium oxide and silver, the Sputnik reported on Friday.

When illuminated with an infrared laser, the structure of the nanoparticle collapses from heat and oxygen, which releases the particle’s contents.

In the study, published in the journal Bioconjugate Chemistry, the team tested out their nanoparticles on bacteria whose DNA was modified to glow when molecules came into contact with artificial sugars which were injected into the nanoparticles.

After illuminating these ‘nano-grenades’ with an infrared laser, the sugars escaped the nanoparticles’ membranes, lighting up the bacteria and proving the method’s effectiveness.

The tab was detailed in the journal Nano Energy. Wikimedia Commons
When illuminated with an infrared laser, the structure of the nanoparticle collapses from heat and oxygen, which releases the particle’s contents. Wikimedia Commons

Importantly, neither the nanoparticles nor their structural collapse affected the viability of the bacteria’s cells.

According to Skorb, the ease with which infrared radiation passes through the human body means that the use of such nanoparticles to fight cancerous tumors or various infections will be possible in virtually any part of the body.

“This area of research is interesting not only from the perspective of the localised delivery of medicines, but also for the creation of a computer in which biological molecules can be used instead of silicon chips. This will pave the way for high-precision control of chemical processes, ‘smart’ medicines and the ability to control molecular machines,” Skorb said in a statement from Russian Science Foundation, Sputnik reported.

Also Read- NASA is Concerned Over The Strains of Toilet Microbes on ISS

To create the nanoparticles, the team experimented with photosensitive nanomaterial technology and a chemical ‘switch’ method to create the nanoparticles.

It consists of titanium dioxide nanoparticles which can split water into hydrogen and oxygen atoms when exposed to light. When placed in a solution of organic compounds, the oxygen produced begins to interact with molecules, changing the acid-base balance.  (IANS)