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Want to eat Truffles: Well, pay $ 11,000 per Kilo

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Truffles are costlier than gold and diamond. Yes, it is true.
Want to eat this delicacy: well, the price could be as high as USD 11,000 per kilogram.

Willing to pay?

This ridiculous price has rightly earned truffle the epithet “Black Diamond of Gastronomy”.
A truffle sandwich may cost you as much as 350 dollars. Truffle paste, butter, and oil are other items made out of it.

Truffles are fungi, grow under the soil and are pleasantly flavored. But the cost means a common man can just dream about it.

Italy, France, and Spain are the main markets. In fact, Spain is considered the largest market of Black Truffles (they come as white and black).

Truffles are something that just grow underneath, ie, you do not do farming. They just grow at wild places like mushroom grow, but hunting can be difficult as they are to be searched by digging the soil. Truffle hunters do so with the help of dogs who are good at sniffing them.

Where do we find Truffles in India:

It is known as Guchchhi in India. Truffles grow in mountain states likes Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttrakhand, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, and Darjeeling. The farmers may be able to get as much as Indian rupees 4,000 per kilogram.

Imported truffle may be available in some marketplaces, but it remains a prized possession.
This video is brought to you by NewsGram in association with Voice of America.(image-trufflebrothers.com)

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Fatal Fungal Infection Weakens the Immune System- Study

Researchers have now discovered how the fungus knocks out the immune defences.

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Fungus, Immune System
Fungus knocks out the immune defences, enabling a potentially fatal fungal infection to develop. Pixabay

While, healthy people usually have no problem if microorganisms find their way into their bodies as their immune defence system will put the spores out of action, a specific type of fungus can threaten lives with a compromised immune system, such as AIDS patients or who are immunosuppressed following an organ transplantation, says a new study.

Researchers have now discovered how the fungus — Aspergillus fumigatus — knocks out the immune defences, enabling a potentially fatal fungal infection to develop.

Fungus, Immune System
A specific type of fungus can threaten lives with a compromised immune system, such as AIDS patients. Pixabay

Among other factors, it is gliotoxin — a potent mycotoxin — that is responsible for the pathogenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus.

Pathogenicity refers to the ability of an organism to cause disease.

“It was known that this substance has an immunosuppressive effect, which means that it weakens the activity of cells of the immune defence system. However, it had not been clear previously how exactly this happens,” said Oliver Werz, Professor at the University of Jena in Germany.

To achieve this, they brought immune cells into contact with synthetically produced gliotoxin. These cells — neutrophilic granulocytes — represent the first line of the immune defence system.

Fungus, Immune System
Fungus can impair the immune system. Pixabay

Their task is to detect pathogens and eliminate them. As soon as such a cell comes into contact with a pathogen, for example a fungus, it releases specific messenger substances (leukotrienes) into the blood, which attract other immune cells. Once a sufficiently large number of immune cells has gathered, they can render the intruder harmless, findings showed, published in the journal, Cell Chemical Biology.

This does not happen if the pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus is involved. Gliotoxin ensures that production of the messenger substance leukotrieneB4 in the neutrophilic granulocytes is inhibited, so that they are unable to send a signal to other immune cells. This is caused by a specific enzyme (LTA4 hydrolase) being switched off by the mycotoxin.

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“This interrupts communication between the immune cells and destroys the defence mechanism. As a result, it is easy for spores – in this case the fungus – that enter the organism to infiltrate tissues or organs,” said Werz. (IANS)