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Welcome ‘Homo Naledi’ in human race!

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By NewsGram Staff Writer

20150912_stp004Johannesburg: So the human race has a new creature in the family now!  On Thursday, an international team of more than 60 scientists led by Lee R Berger  in Johannesburg announced the new species found in the caves of South Africa. The name Homo Naledi refers to the cave where the bones lay undisturbed for so long; “naledi” means “star” in the local Sesotho language.

The species measured about 5-feet tall and had the brain size of chimpanzees. There is evidence of a powerful thumb and a complex wrist that are distinctly human-like—clear signs of regular tool use. But the fingers are strongly curved, suggesting hands that were also regularly used for climbing. The bones, they argue, look strikingly similar to those of early Homo Erectus, a forerunner of modern humans who wandered southern Africa 1.5m years ago.

Dr Berger said, “With almost every bone in the body represented multiple times, Homo Naledi is already the best-known fossil member of our lineage.”

Christoph Zollikofer, an anthropologist at the University of Zurich, said many of the bone characteristics indicated that the creature as a new species is seen in more primitive animals, and by definition it cannot be used to define a new species.

“If this is an ancient species, like a coelacanth, that has come down through time and is only tens of thousands, or hundreds of thousands of years old, it means that during that time we had a complex species wandering around Africa, perhaps making tools. That would make archaeology very difficult, because we are not going to know who made what,” Berger said.

Dr Berger is an American paleoanthropologist who is a professor of human evolution studies at the University of the Witwatersrand.

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  • aquape

    This is a great discovery & excavation, but prof Berger’s interpretations (human ancestor, deliberate burial, tool maker, distance runner) are anthropocentric.
    Homo or Australopithecus naledi is not unexpected (in fact predicted, google: aquarboreal). Comparative anatomy suggests that naledi were bonobo-like forest-swamp or wetland waders who fed on aquatic herbaceous vegetation (AHV, e.g. sedges, frogbit, waterlilies) like lowland gorillas & bonobos do (google: bonobo wading) but more frequently.
    They fossilised in mud-stone (stagnant water). The curved hand-bones were for vertical climbing in the branches above the swamp like bonobos do. With their long thumbs, they swam & collected floating herbs (AHV). The flat, more humanlike feet are more flamingo- (wading) than ostrich-like (running).
    It was a natural fossilisation: when they died, their bodies got almost immediately covered with (oxygen-poor) mud, and afterwards the mudstone with the abundant (google: gorilla bai) fossils slid side- & downwards (on average a few centimetres every thousand years).
    The more humanlike primitive feet are no argument for making them Homo: prenatal chimps also have longer & adducted big toes (S.Coon) and female highland gorillas keep these into adulthood (A.Schultz).

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  • aquape

    This is a great discovery & excavation, but prof Berger’s interpretations (human ancestor, deliberate burial, tool maker, distance runner) are anthropocentric.
    Homo or Australopithecus naledi is not unexpected (in fact predicted, google: aquarboreal). Comparative anatomy suggests that naledi were bonobo-like forest-swamp or wetland waders who fed on aquatic herbaceous vegetation (AHV, e.g. sedges, frogbit, waterlilies) like lowland gorillas & bonobos do (google: bonobo wading) but more frequently.
    They fossilised in mud-stone (stagnant water). The curved hand-bones were for vertical climbing in the branches above the swamp like bonobos do. With their long thumbs, they swam & collected floating herbs (AHV). The flat, more humanlike feet are more flamingo- (wading) than ostrich-like (running).
    It was a natural fossilisation: when they died, their bodies got almost immediately covered with (oxygen-poor) mud, and afterwards the mudstone with the abundant (google: gorilla bai) fossils slid side- & downwards (on average a few centimetres every thousand years).
    The more humanlike primitive feet are no argument for making them Homo: prenatal chimps also have longer & adducted big toes (S.Coon) and female highland gorillas keep these into adulthood (A.Schultz).

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Chocolate Ingredient Cacao Dates Back To 5,400 yrs Ago

A growing interest in cacao flavors, indicates a return to a time when chocolate wasn't just an ingredient buried in a candy bar.

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A worker holds dried cacao seeds at a plantation in Cano Rico, Venezuela. VOA

New research strengthens the case that people used the chocolate ingredient cacao in South America 5,400 years ago, underscoring the seed’s radical transformation into today’s Twix bars and M&M candies.

Tests indicate traces of cacao on artifacts from an archaeological site in Ecuador, according to a study published Monday. That’s about 1,500 years older than cacao’s known domestication in Central America.

“It’s the earliest site now with domesticated cacao,” said Cameron McNeil of Lehman College in New York, who was not involved in the research.

The ancient South American civilization likely didn’t use cacao to make chocolate since there’s no established history of indigenous populations in the region using it that way, researchers led by the University of British Columbia in Canada said.

Cacao,chocolate
-A cacao pod hangs from a tree at the Agropampatar chocolate farm co-op in El Clavo, Venezuela. VOA

But the tests indicate the civilization used the cacao seed, not just the fruity pulp. The seeds are the part of the cacao pod used to make chocolate.

Indigenous populations in the upper Amazon region today use cacao for fermented drinks and juices, and it’s probably how it was used thousands of years ago as well, researchers said.

Scientists mostly agree that cacao was first domesticated in South America instead of Central America as previously believed. The study in Nature Ecology & Evolution provides fresh evidence.

Three types of tests were conducted using artifacts from the Santa Ana-La Florida site in Ecuador. One tested for the presence of theobromine, a key compound in cacao; another tested for preserved particles that help archeologists identify ancient plant use; a third used DNA testing to identify cacao.

Chocolate
A light almond cream candy carries the initials for Russell Stover Candies in Kansas City, Kansas. VOA

Residue from one ceramic artifact estimated to be 5,310 to 5,440 years old tested positive for cacao by all three methods. Others tested positive for cacao traces as well, but were not as old.

How cacao’s use spread between South America and Central America is not clear. But by the time Spanish explorers arrived in Central America in the late 1400s, they found people were using it to make hot and cold chocolate drinks with spices, often with a foamy top.

“For most of the modern period, it was a beverage,” said Marcy Norton, a historian at the University of Pennsylvania and author of “Sacred Gifts, Profane Pleasures: A History of Tobacco and Chocolate in the Atlantic World.”

The chocolate drinks in Central America often contained maize and differ from the hot chocolate sold in the U.S. They did not contain milk, Norton said, and when they were sweetened, it was with honey.

 

cocoa, chocolate
A worker holds cocoa beans at SAF CACAO, a export firm in San-Pedro, Ivory Coast, Jan. 29, 2016. VOA

By the 1580s, cacao was being regularly imported into Spain and spread to other European countries with milk being added along the way. It wasn’t until the 1800s that manufacturing advances in the Netherlands transformed chocolate into a solid product, Norton said.

Michael Laiskonis, who teaches chocolate classes the Institute of Culinary Education, said he’s seeing a growing interest in cacao flavors, indicating a return to a time when chocolate wasn’t just an ingredient buried in a candy bar.

Also Read: Consuming Cacao May Improve Vitamin D Intake, Says Study

He said he tries to incorporate chocolate’s past into his classes, including a 1644 recipe that combines Mayan and Aztec versions of drinks with European influences.

“It’s something that’s always been transforming,” he said. (VOA)