Saturday December 16, 2017

‘Bog Butter’ dating back to 2,000 years discovered in Co Meath, Ireland

Bog was used by ancient people to preserve dead bodies

0
457
Bog butter. Image source: Wikimedia Commons
  • A 2,000 years old “bog butter” weighing 22-pounds recently discovered
  • The confounding fact is that it could also be “theoretically… still edible”
  • Such methods of preserving things in bogs were surprisingly common back in those days

An enormous lump of “bog butter” weighing 22-pounds, which is believed to be buried almost 2,000-year-ago, was recently discovered in Co Meath, Ireland. But why would one bury it with intent to preserve it for so long? There is only one possible reason – Ancient butter experts believe that it was once offering to the gods.

Follow NewsGram on Twitter: @newsgram1

Bog butter it as a “creamy white dairy product, which smells like a strong cheese.”  The massive find, while not unusual, has been enclosed in a refrigerated case and given to the National Museum, where it will be preserved, said an atlasobscura report.

Such methods of preserving things in bogs were surprisingly common back in ancient times. Without salt, butter would spoil quickly, but the cold, low-oxygen environment of the bog could probably act as an unreal refrigerator. To ensure the protection of Bog butter, it is sometimes found enclosed in wooden containers or animal skin. Bog was even used by ancient people to preserve dead bodies.

The Butter which is estimated to be over 2,000 years old has gone to the Conservation Department, National Museum for research and analysis. Image source: Caravan County Museum
The Butter which is estimated to be over 2,000 years old has gone to the Conservation Department, National Museum for research and analysis. Image source: Caravan County Museum

The confounding fact is that it could also be “theoretically… still edible” according to Andy Halpin, one of the Irish National Museums’ assistant keepers. Although, it won’t be advisable to taste it before proper examination and there is little possibility of it tasting good. Also, if it’s true that it was an offering to God then one would have to figure out whether or not to eat the butter meant for Gods.

Follow NewsGram on facebook: NewsGram 

Archaeologist Ross MacLeod commented on the quantity of butter discovered in Galway. Speaking to the Irish Times he said, “It would have been a substantial loss to the family that buried the butter in the bog that they never recovered it. Perhaps the person who buried it died or forgot where it was left…That might have been stored up by a family during the summer and put into the bog for use during the cold winter months. Its loss could have been a tremendous one for some family a long, long time ago.”

-By Pashchiema, an intern at NewsGram. Twitter: @pashchiema

ALSO READ

 

Next Story

Uses of coffee for a healthy skin

Coffee does not only give you a kick start in the morning but is also useful for skin.

0
11
Use of coffee for a healthy skin.
Use of coffee for a healthy skin. IANS
  • Coffee- a remedy for a healthier skin
  • Coffee used for giving a supple skin during winters

New Delhi, Dec 5: Coffee turns out to be your best friend to give warmth in the winter season but do you know that you get a supple skin if you try coffee on your skin in the chilly season?

Neetu Prasher, Head of Training at Avon India, lists the reasons why coffee is good for the skin in winter.

* A coffee brew not only gets you kicking in the morning but is also one of the healthiest natural ingredients to keep your skin glowing whether it’s in the form of beans, liquid or grounded coffee.

* Exfoliating and brightening properties of coffee make it a popular ingredient in many beauty and wellness products for both men and women. Caffeine extracts help rejuvenate skin in addition to repairing UV damage.

* The antioxidants in coffee help combat UV damage to your skin and is good for the overall health of your skin, giving it a rich glow.

* Grounded coffee beans can be used to prepare a homemade body scrub (can be mixed with honey). Since coffee is a gentler exfoliating agent than peach or walnut, the scrub removes dead skin without irritation in addition to moisturizing your skin.

* Eye-puffiness or eye bags are another regular feature that can be easily cured at home using coffee. Coffee ice cubes can be gently rubbed under your eyes for a soothing effect reducing puffiness or redness around the eyes.

Stephanie Schedel- Head of training at Malu Wilz also listed some Do It yourself (DIY) ways to get flawless skin with coffee.

* Facial Exfoliation

* Ingredients and process: Three spoons of any kind of plant oil (almond oil, grape seed oil, olive oil, etc.); Three spoons of coffee grounds; Mix and apply in circular motions on the skin. Rinse off with lukewarm water; Makes skin soft and supple. For extra care add a squeezed half of avocado.

* Coffee Eye Mask

* Ingredients and process: Fights tired eyes and dark circles; five tea spoons warm coffee grounds; one teaspoon honey; one teaspoon olives: Mix to a balm: Add some more honey if necessary. Put on closed eyes and let it rest for 30 minutes. Remove with lukewarm water. Lukewarm coffee pads are a simple alternative. (IANS)

Next Story

Bakelite: The Revolutionary Invention of Leo Baekeland

Today marks the 108th anniversary of the day when bakelite was first patented.

0
33
leo baekeland
Leo Hendrik Baekeland (1863- 1944)

Bakelite! Ah, the pioneering invention that defined the modern plastic industry. The plastic which had once been the primary substance of manufactured everyday items which now line up the boastful shelves of antiquity collectors: chokers, lockets, fine jewelleries and watches, furniture and radios…

This is in remembrance of the pioneer of modern plastic- bakelite- and of the man behind this revolutionary invention.

In what would probably have been his late forties, Leo Hendrik Baekeland had a goal in his mind: to find a replacement for shellac. Made from the shells of Asian female lac beatles, shellac had its uses as a colourant, food glaze and wood finish. Chemists had already identified natural resins like shellac as polymers and had started experiments to form synthetic polymers. Encouraged by these advances, Baekeland began his own experiments by first combining phenol and formaldehyde to create a soluble shellac. He called it “Novolak”. Unfortunately, this first phenol- formaldehyde combination fluttered away without a trace, never finding popularity. However, it did leave Baekeland with valuable experience.

It was the second attempt that set the boulder rolling! This time Baekeland chose precision. Initiating a controlled reaction between phenol and formaldehyde, the Belgian chemist found himself witnessing the birth of the plastic he had so long waited for.

About a hundred- and eight years ago on this very day, Leo Hendrik Baekeland patented the first thermosetting plastic- bakelite!

invention of bakelite
The Bakelizer was a steam pressure vessel used to produce commercial quantities of Bakelite since 1909. Photo from Chemical Heritage Foundation in wikimedia commons.

The Belgian’s invention was an instant success. Bakelite took the plastic industries of the world by storm, finding its use in more than a thousand of items and accessories. From jewellery and fashion equipments including the choker, bakelite earrings and lockets to kitchenware like bakelite handles, knobs and utensils, the revolutionary new plastic went on to find crucial uses in the radio and automobile industries, which during that age were undergoing rapid growth.

Picture of a bakelite radio at the Bakelite Museum, Somerset, UK. Photo from wikimedia commons

However, the fame that bakelite had earned was not destined to last long. With the synthesis of new plastic formulas after the end of the Second World War, the demand for bakelite began to diminish. New plastics like ABS and Lexan began surfacing across the industrial world to overthrow the reign of Leo Baekeland’s groundbreaking invention.

A little over a hundred years on though, bakelite still shines on! Besides being a collector’s item in the modern world, it still exists in brotherhood with the likes of aluminium and steel to fill catalogues and portals that sell quality kitchenware to the masses. Clearly, it never left. It was an invention which had been wrought out by Baekeland; a pioneer which was here to stay.

 

– Twitter Handle: @QuillnQuire

Next Story

Oldest recorded solar eclipse occurred 3,200 years ago

0
23
Solar eclipse

Cambridge University researchers have pinpointed the date of what could be the oldest solar eclipse yet recorded. The event, which occurred on October 30, 1207 BC, is mentioned in the Bible, and could help historians to date Egyptian pharaohs.

“Solar eclipses are often used as a fixed point to date events in the ancient world,” said Professor Colin Humphreys from University of Cambridge’s Department of Materials Science & Metallurgy.

Using a combination of the biblical text and an ancient Egyptian text, the researchers were able to refine the dates of the Egyptian pharaohs, in particular, the dates of the reign of Ramesses the Great, according to the study published in the journal Astronomy & Geophysics.

The biblical text in question comes from the Old Testament book of Joshua and has puzzled biblical scholars for centuries.

It records that after Joshua led the people of Israel into Canaan, a region of the ancient Near East that covered modern-day Israel and Palestine – he prayed: “Sun, stand still at Gibeon, and Moon, in the Valley of Aijalon. And the Sun stood still, and the Moon stopped until the nation took vengeance on their enemies.”

“If these words are describing a real observation, then a major astronomical event was taking place – the question for us to figure out is what the text actually means,” Humphreys said.

“Modern English translations, which follow the King James translation of 1611, usually interpret this text to mean that the Sun and Moon stopped moving,” Humphreys said.

“But going back to the original Hebrew text, we determined that an alternative meaning could be that the Sun and Moon just stopped doing what they normally do: they stopped shining. In this context, the Hebrew words could be referring to a solar eclipse, when the Moon passes between the earth and the Sun, and the Sun appears to stop shining,” Humphreys said.

This interpretation is supported by the fact that the Hebrew word translated ‘stand still’ has the same root as a Babylonian word used in ancient astronomical texts to describe eclipses, he added.

Independent evidence that the Israelites were in Canaan between 1500 and 1050 BC can be found in the Merneptah Stele, an Egyptian text dating from the reign of the Pharaoh Merneptah, son of the well-known Ramesses the Great, the study said.

The large granite block, held in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, says that it was carved in the fifth year of Merneptah’s reign and mentions a campaign in Canaan in which he defeated the people of Israel.

Earlier historians had used these two texts to try to date the possible eclipse, but were not successful as they were only looking at total eclipses, in which the disc of the Sun appears to be completely covered by the moon as the moon passes directly between the earth and the sun.

What the earlier historians failed to consider was that it was instead an annular eclipse, in which the Moon passes directly in front of the Sun, but is too far away to cover the disc completely, the researchers said.

In the ancient world, the same word was used for both total and annular eclipses.

The researchers developed a new eclipse code, which takes into account variations in the Earth’s rotation over time.

From their calculations, they determined that the only annular eclipse visible from Canaan between 1500 and 1050 BC was on 30 October 1207 BC, in the afternoon.

If their arguments are accepted, it would not only be the oldest solar eclipse yet recorded, it would also enable researchers to date the reigns of Ramesses the Great and his son Merneptah to within a year.

Using these new calculations, the researchers determined that Ramesses the Great reigned from 1276-1210 BC, with a precision of plus or minus one year.(IANS)