Thursday January 17, 2019

Research Yields Possible Blood Test for Cancer

The test was most successful with ovarian cancer, followed by liver, stomach, pancreatic, esophageal, colorectal, lung and breast cancers.

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Scientists have found a way of detecting cancer through blood tests. IANS
Scientists have found a way of detecting cancer through blood tests. IANS
  • Scientists have developed a blood test which can detect cancer
  • This blood test can detect eight types of cancer
  • They have developed a way of detecting DNA which comes specifically from cancer

Scientists at Johns Hopkins University (JHU) are reporting progress in developing a blood test to detect eight types of cancer at an early stage, including some of the most deadly ones that are difficult to detect with existing screening tools.

In a study published Thursday in the journal Science, JHU scientists examined how well their experimental test detected cancer in people already diagnosed with the disease.

Also Read : How broccoli can help keep colorectal cancer away 

This blood test can detect 8 types of cancers. Pixabay
This blood test can detect 8 types of cancers. Pixabay

In blood samples from more than 1,000 patients already diagnosed with cancer, the test detected the cancer in about 70 percent of the subjects.

Nikolas Papadopoulos, a professor of oncology and pathology at Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, said the test is noninvasive.

“All [patients] have to do is give a little bit of blood,” he told VOA. “What we detect is DNA, which is the genetic material that is present in all of our cells, but we have developed a method to detect DNA that comes only from the cancer cells.”

Scientists have been focused on liquid biopsy tests which look for mutated DNA that floats freely in the blood and in cancer-related proteins to try to find cancer before it spreads. They focused on cancers for which there is little or no early-screening process — the ones that are often serious enough to be deadly by the time they are detected.

“That’s one of the tricks that cancer plays on us,” Papadopoulos said. “It grows inside of us and we feel fine until we start having something like a pain or a cough or something like that. And many times, it’s too late.”

Also Read : Alcohol can be linked with seven types of Cancer

This test detects DNA which is specifically formed due to cancer. sites.bu.edu
This test detects DNA which is specifically formed due to cancer. sites.bu.edu

The test was most successful with ovarian cancer, followed by liver, stomach, pancreatic, esophageal, colorectal, lung and breast cancers.

“This study that’s just published, it’s the first step,” Papadopoulos said.

He said a larger study is under way, with a pool of thousands of people. Unlike the earlier study, which dealt solely with patients already known to have cancer, the new group makes up a more representative sample of the general population — that is, most do not have cancer, at least not that has been diagnosed.

“The new study is different in that it simulates what is going to be the population that this test will be applied to,” he said. “And hopefully, we will get good results.” VOA

Next Story

Novel DNA Tool Can Help You Trace Your Origins to Vikings

The researchers found that ancient genomes typically consist of hundreds of thousands and sometimes millions of markers

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New DNA tool can trace your origins to Vikings, Pixabay

Think, that your ancestors were Roman Britons, Vikings or ancient Israelites? A new DNA tool can help you trace your similarity to these ancient people who once roamed the earth, say researchers.

Currently the study of ancient DNA requires a lot of information to classify a skeleton to a population or find its biogeographical origins.

But, scientists from the UK’s University of Sheffield, defined a new concept called Ancient Ancestry Informative Markers (aAIMs) — a group of mutations that are sufficiently informative to identify and classify ancient populations.

They found that the identification of a small group of aAIMs that can be used to classify skeletons to ancient populations.

“We developed a new method that finds aAIMs efficiently and have proved that it is accurate,” said lead author Eran Elhaik, from Sheffield’s Department of Animal and Plant Sciences.

The new tool identifies aAIMs by combining traditional methodology with a novel one that takes into account a mixture.

DNA double helix
DNA double helix. Wikimedia

People are currently unable to trace their primeval origins because commercial microarrays, such as the ones used for genetic genealogy, do not have relevant markers.

But aAIMs is like finding the fingerprints of ancient people, Elhaik noted.

“It allows testing of a small number of markers – that can be found in a commonly available array – and you can ask what part of your genome is from Roman Britons or Viking, or Chumash Indians, or ancient Israelites, etc,” he explained.

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“We can ask any question we want about these ancient people as long as someone sequenced these ancient markers.”

The researchers found that ancient genomes typically consist of hundreds of thousands and sometimes millions of markers.

“We demonstrated that only 13,000 markers are needed to make accurate population classifications for ancient genomes and while the field of ancient forensics does not exist yet, these aAIMs can help us get much closer to ancient people,” Elhaik said. (IANS)