Thursday July 19, 2018

Research Yields Possible Blood Test for Cancer

The test was most successful with ovarian cancer, followed by liver, stomach, pancreatic, esophageal, colorectal, lung and breast cancers.

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Scientists have found a way of detecting cancer through blood tests. IANS
Scientists have found a way of detecting cancer through blood tests. IANS
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  • Scientists have developed a blood test which can detect cancer
  • This blood test can detect eight types of cancer
  • They have developed a way of detecting DNA which comes specifically from cancer

Scientists at Johns Hopkins University (JHU) are reporting progress in developing a blood test to detect eight types of cancer at an early stage, including some of the most deadly ones that are difficult to detect with existing screening tools.

In a study published Thursday in the journal Science, JHU scientists examined how well their experimental test detected cancer in people already diagnosed with the disease.

Also Read : How broccoli can help keep colorectal cancer away 

This blood test can detect 8 types of cancers. Pixabay
This blood test can detect 8 types of cancers. Pixabay

In blood samples from more than 1,000 patients already diagnosed with cancer, the test detected the cancer in about 70 percent of the subjects.

Nikolas Papadopoulos, a professor of oncology and pathology at Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, said the test is noninvasive.

“All [patients] have to do is give a little bit of blood,” he told VOA. “What we detect is DNA, which is the genetic material that is present in all of our cells, but we have developed a method to detect DNA that comes only from the cancer cells.”

Scientists have been focused on liquid biopsy tests which look for mutated DNA that floats freely in the blood and in cancer-related proteins to try to find cancer before it spreads. They focused on cancers for which there is little or no early-screening process — the ones that are often serious enough to be deadly by the time they are detected.

“That’s one of the tricks that cancer plays on us,” Papadopoulos said. “It grows inside of us and we feel fine until we start having something like a pain or a cough or something like that. And many times, it’s too late.”

Also Read : Alcohol can be linked with seven types of Cancer

This test detects DNA which is specifically formed due to cancer. sites.bu.edu
This test detects DNA which is specifically formed due to cancer. sites.bu.edu

The test was most successful with ovarian cancer, followed by liver, stomach, pancreatic, esophageal, colorectal, lung and breast cancers.

“This study that’s just published, it’s the first step,” Papadopoulos said.

He said a larger study is under way, with a pool of thousands of people. Unlike the earlier study, which dealt solely with patients already known to have cancer, the new group makes up a more representative sample of the general population — that is, most do not have cancer, at least not that has been diagnosed.

“The new study is different in that it simulates what is going to be the population that this test will be applied to,” he said. “And hopefully, we will get good results.” VOA

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CRISPR Gene Editing can Cause Risky Collateral DNA Damage: Study

The work has implications for how CRISPR/Cas9 is used therapeutically and is likely to re-spark researchers' interest in finding alternatives to the standard CRISPR/Cas9 method for gene editing

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CRISPR/Cas9 is a type of molecular scissor technology that can alter sections of DNA in cells by cutting at specific points and introducing changes at that location.. Pixabay

The much celebrated CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technique can cause greater genetic damage in cells than was previously thought, scientists have warned.

CRISPR/Cas9 is a type of molecular scissor technology that can alter sections of DNA in cells by cutting at specific points and introducing changes at that location.

Besides extensive use in scientific research, CRISPR/Cas9 has also been seen as a promising way to create potential genome editing treatments for diseases such as HIV, cancer or sickle cell disease.

But the new research, reported in the journal Nature Biotechnology, revealed that CRISPR/Cas9 frequently caused extensive mutations, though at a distance from the target site.

Many of the cells, in both mice and humans, had large genetic rearrangements such as DNA deletions and insertions.

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CRISPR/Cas9 frequently caused extensive mutations, though at a distance from the target site.. Pixabay

These could lead to important genes being switched on or off, which could have major implications for CRISPR/Cas9 use in therapies.

In addition, some of these changes were too far away from the target site to be seen with standard genotyping methods, the researchers said.

“This is the first systematic assessment of unexpected events resulting from CRISPR/Cas9 editing in therapeutically relevant cells, and we found that changes in the DNA have been seriously underestimated before now,” said Allan Bradley, Professor at the Wellcome Sanger Institute in London.

Also Read: New Link Found Between Alcohol, Genes And Heart Failure

“It is important that anyone thinking of using this technology for gene therapy proceeds with caution, and looks very carefully to check for possible harmful effects,” Bradley added

The work has implications for how CRISPR/Cas9 is used therapeutically and is likely to re-spark researchers’ interest in finding alternatives to the standard CRISPR/Cas9 method for gene editing.

“While it is not known if genomic sites in other cell lines will be affected in the same way, this study shows that further research and specific testing is needed before CRISPR/Cas9 is used clinically,” the researchers said. (IANS)